Mô tả
Prof. Ian Townsend-Gault, Centre for Asian Legal Studies, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada "...This paper explores the rules of international law, as well as relevant state practice, pertaining to maritime cooperation.  Its scope therefore includes formal and informal arrangements whereby states have decided to blur, or establish some alternative to, the usual rules pertaining to exclusive jurisdiction at sea.  This can be done for a number of purposes:  the joint exploration and exploitation of agreed areas for oil and gas activities, the cooperative development of individual oil or gas fields, joint fishing zones, or other areas within which a variety of activities by the authorities and/or nationals of the states concerned are envisaged.  There are other types of arrangement, usually informal, whereby countries have agreed, de facto, to respect historically established boundaries for certain jurisdictional purposes, without prejudice to a final formal agreement.  The emphasis in all cases is the same:  not allowing differences concerning the extent of maritime jurisdiction to get in the way of exploration, exploitation, monitoring, enforcement:  in short, the ensemble of rights and obligations that coastal states enjoy and are required to observe in the oceans. It might be as well to say at the outset that this writer acknowledges that joint development of the petroleum resources of an area is not the same thing as the cooperative development of an individual field. But that difference is immaterial here: this paper seeks to draw legal conclusions from different manifestations of state behaviour – where two or more sovereign entities agree to cooperate..."
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