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An online resource for students, scholars and policy-makers interested in South China Sea regional development, environment, and security issues.

Editor: David Rosenberg



Online Publications


A Code of Conduct for The South China Sea? Jane's Information Group, October 2000.
- The South China Sea is still a highly disputed area, with rival claims to the Spratly Islands and potential hydrocarbon resources in the region. Clive Schofield examines the claims of surrounding countries and the potential for a Code of Conduct for the South China Sea.

Acharya, Amitav. Seeking Security in the Dragon’s Shadow: China and Southeast Asia in the Emerging Asian Order. Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies, Singapore, March 2003.
- Reviews ASEAN responses to China’s increased economic power and status as a regional security threat. ASEAN countries must unify if they wish to shape their relationship with China in a manner that best captures the security and economic benefits of Chinese cooperation. Keywords: rivalry, interdependence, competition

Akiyama, Masahiro. Defending sea lanes vital to nation's interests.
- The Asahi Shimbun. September 1,2004. - It would be too late to act after incidents occur. Many countries are growing increasingly wary of maritime security. Japan is also urged to promptly deal with it...

Akimoto, Kazimine. The Current of Maritime Security- Structural Weaknesses and Threats in the Sea Lanes. From the conference "Maritime Security in Southeast Asia and Southwest Asia", Institute for International Policy Studies, Tokyo, 11-13 December 2001.
- Assesses threats to major chokepoints in Asian maritime world and proposes responses to those threats. Keywords: Japan, trade, shipping.

Amarsective 2004 -- the Asia Maritime Security Initiative.
-"IN A move that is seen as a further crack down on maritime security threats in the region, Asian coastguard agencies have unanimously adopted the Asia Maritime Security Initiative 2004 (Amarsective 2004)."

Asian maritime & trade chronology to 1700 CE. Maritime Asia, 2004.
- List of historical accounts and archaeological excavations of maritime expeditions in Asia. Keywords: goods, ships, envoys

The Asia-Pacific: A Region in Transition. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2004.
- The moral from this is that although change itself might be a given, its pace and direction are not and any lessons to be learnt from change are elusive and require an examination of assumptions as much as of trends.

Asia Society/Asian Updates. Most recent article: "Growing Pains: ASEAN's Economic and Political Challenges", Cal Clark, March 2000.
- This discussion of Taiwan’s presidential election begins with an overview of the major parties and candidates involved. It then provides a background discussion of the two major issues that have emerged during the campaign: 1) the interlinked questions concerning national identity on Taiwan and cross-Strait relations with the PRC; and 2) patronage-style politics in Taiwan with its possible linkage to corruption or what has come to be called "black-and-gold politics." The third section describes how the major candidates have treated these two issues and how this has seemingly affected their levels of support. Finally, the conclusion reviews the implications of the elections for the evolving nature of democracy in Taiwan and for relations with the PRC.


Banlaoi, Rommel C. Maritime Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Abu Sayyaf Threat. Naval War College Review; Vol.58, No.4, 2005.
- Explores the dangers posed by the possibility of terrorist groups using pirate methods to carry out attacks.

Barnes, Paul, and Richard Oloruntoba. Assurance of security in maritime supply chains: Conceptual issues of vulnerability and crisis management. Journal of International Management; 11, 2005 pg. 519-540.
- The inherent complexities of maritime supply chains can produce significant vulnerabilities. This paper analyses those vulnerabilities and concludes by emphasizing the need to "examine the goodness-of-fit of security initiative against business efficiency and competitiveness."

Barrios, Erik. Casting a Wider Net: Addressing the Maritime Piracy Problem in Southeast Asia. Boston College International & Comparative Law Review,Winter 2005.
- Discussion of the current policies (and some issues that have arisen due to these policies) for defining and punishing pirate attacks in Southeast Asia.

Bateman, Sam. Coast Guards: New Forces for Regional Order and Security. Asia-Pacific Issues, East-West Center, January 2003.
- Maritime regimes need to be developed to bring order to the oceans and seas of the region. Maritime cooperation is a major component of the regime building process and is essential for the effective management of regional seas, especially marine environmental protection, marine safety, resource management, and preventing illegal activity at sea.

Bateman, Sam. The Rise of Rudd and the Fall of Howard: Policy Implications for Southeast Asia. RSIS Commentaries; Dec. 3, 2007.
- Article on how changes in the Australian government will affect maritime relations with Southeast Asia.

Beckman, Robert C. Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships in Southeast Asia: The Way Forward. Ocean Development and International Law, 2002.
- Analyzes recently reported incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships in Southeast Asia and recommends steps to be taken by international community and states in the region. Keywords: Malacca Strait, sea, robbery.

Beckman, Robert C. PSSAs and Transit Passage - Australia's Pilotage System in the Torres Strait Challenges the IMO and UNCLOS. Ocean Development and International Law; vol. 38, 2007, pg.325-357.
- Analyzes Australia's decision to extend pilotage laws to the Torres Strait and the questions of international maritime law that were raised by this decision.

Beeby, Rosslyn. Turf War Hurting Fisheries: Report. The Canberra Times; Tuesday, Jan 29, 2008.
"Corruption 'is compounding the devastating effects of over-fishing', robbing Pacific Island economies of millions of dollars and economic development opportunities." Turf wars between China and Taiwan are blamed for the growing corruption in the fishing industries of Southeast Asia.

Benton, Lauren. Legal Spaces of Empire: Piracy and the Origins of Ocean Regionalism.


- Examines the link between globalizing legal practices in the late 17th and early 18th centuries and sharpening distinctions between the Atlantic and Indian oceans.

Bin Hussin, Abd Rahim. The Management of Straits of Malacca: Burden Sharing as the Basis for Co-operation. LIMA International Maritime Confrence 2005.
- Presentation on the need for cooperation to ensure security for ships traveling the Malacca Straits.

A Biophysical Assessment of the Philippine Territory of the Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion. Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Program, May 2003.
- Extensive information on biological diversity in the region; identifies threats, current conservation initiatives and gaps in conservation efforts; targets priority areas for conservation projects within Philippine territory of the ecoregion. Keywords: environment, World Wildlife Fund

Bradford, John F. Japanese Anti-Piracy Initiatives in Southeast Asia: Policy Formulation and the Coastal State Responses. Contemporary Southeast Asia; Vol.26, No.3, Dec. 2004.


- Despite a traditional reluctance to take an aggressive stance in Asian affairs, Japan has accepted leading role in the efforts to eradicate maritime piracy. Some countries have offered their cooperation in the effort while others see the costs outweighing the benefits.

Bradford, John. The Growing Prospects For Maritime Security Cooperation In Southeast Asia. Naval War College Review, Summer 2005, Vol. 58, No. 3 .
- “Discusses the threats to maritime security in Southeast Asia, describes the factors tending toward strengthened maritime security cooperation, and argues that networks of bilateral relationships may be more fruitful than purely multilateral arrangements.” Keywords: ASEAN, military, threats, crime

Brown, Roxanna M. and Sten Sjostrand. Malaysia at The Crossroads. Maritime Asia, 2001.
- The Malay peninsula separates two primary networks of sailing routes. To the west lies the Indian Ocean, with routes extending from the western coast of the Malay peninsula to the shores of Africa, and to the east lies the South China Sea, with a network of routes connecting East and Southeast Asia.

Bruyneel, Mark. Modern Day Piracy Statistics, Nov 28, 2001.
- A brief analysis of the number of reported piracy attacks from 1980 to 2000.

Bulkeley, Jennifer C. Regional Cooperation on Maritime Piracy: A Prelude to Greater Multilateralism in Asia? Journal of Public and International Affairs; Vol.14, Spring 2003.
- Examines maritime piracy as a possible uniting issue for future multilateral action in Asia by looking at potential challenges and providing policy recommendations for the future.

Burgess, J. Peter. The Politics of the South China Sea: Territoriality and International Law. Security Dialogue vol. 34, no. 1, March 2003, 7-10.
- Brief overview of major resources of the South China Sea and recent territorial disputes between SCS states. Keywords: shipping, ASEAN, conflicts

Buszynski, Leszek, and Iskandar Sazlan. Maritime Claims and Energy Cooperation in the South China Sea. Contemporary Southeast Asia; Vol. 29, No.1, 2007, pg.143-171.


Focuses on the issues caused by conflicting maritime claims in the South China Sea and the distribution of resources in the region. Keywords: maritime claims, energy cooperation, oil, hydrocarbons.


Chambers, Michael. Review of China and the South Sea Dialogues by Lee Lai To. H-Asia, January, 2000.
- "This very useful book for those interested in China's policies toward the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries. Focusing on China's discussions with these countries regarding the South China Sea disputes generally, and the dispute over the Spratly Islands in particular, Lee analyzes China's policy on these disputes as well as how these disputes fit into China's overall relations with the ASEAN countries.

Cherson, Adam. An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century. Journal of International Affairs; Fall 2005; 59, 1; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 305.
- A reveiew of An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy (Washington, DC: 2004).

Chua Thia-Eng, and Stella Regina Bernad, Eds. Coastal and Ocean Governance of the Seas of East Asia: Towards an Era of New Regional Cooperation and Partnerships, July 2003.
..The formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) more than 35 years ago is a testimony of the recognition of the mutual reliance among the countries..."

Chia Lin Sien, Marine Carriage of Petroleum with Special Reference to Northeast Asia, University of California, Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, February 1998.
- Background information on patterns of oil trade and shipping in Northeast Asia and discusses the prospects for increased economic cooperation in the region. Keywords: Russia, refineries, Malacca Straits.

China News
China news is part of the China Internet Information Centre and offers the latest news updates about China. It also offers government position papers and extensive information about Chinese history, politics and economics.

Cossa, Ralph. Security Implications of Conflict in the South China Sea: Exploring Potential Triggers of Conflict. PacNet Newsletter #16. April 17, 1998.
- Potential triggers include exploration or exploitation activity, creeping occupation, armed displacement, armed enforcement, accidents or miscalculations, and other acts of provocation. Conflict scenarios are examined and recommendations are given to reduce the prospect of conflict. Possible confidence building measures are identified.

Comparative Connections
- An e-journal on bilateral East-Asian relations from the Pacific Forum CSIS.

Cossa, Ralph, and Eun Jung Cahill Che, Eds. Long-term Visions of Regional Security: A U.S.-China Strategic Dialogue. Pacific Forum, CSIS, PacNet 21, May 26, 2000.
- Comprehensive discussion of Chinese-U.S relations in the post-Cold War era, including contentious aspects of "Managing Differing Views on Taiwan."

Cotton, James. ASEAN and the Southeast Asian 'Haze': Challenging the Prevailing Modes of Regional Engagement.
- Canberra: Australian National University, RSPAS, Department of International Relations Working Paper No.1999/3 (1999)

Country Watch’s Global Guide to the Spratly Islands Conflict
Country Watch’s Global Guide provides detailed information about countries of the world and world phenomenon such as Globalization etc. An interesting and unique feature of this guide is its “International Hot Spots” section which provides a summary background, contextual and analytical information about the latest world issues such as Iran’s Nuclear Program and The conflict of the Spratly Islands.


Dali, Alex. Piracy Attacks in the Malacca Strait.
- Outlines a number of examples of recent piracy attacks in the Malacca Strait by both independent groups and organized crime rings.

Datin, Tunku. How has the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea fared? Presentation at the 12th Commonwealth Law Conference, Kuala Lumpur, September 1999.
- Discusses laws governing the sea prior to the UNCLOS, the provisions of the UNCLOS, and the various international issues that have arisen since the UNCLOS regarding enforcement of its provisions. Keywords: Exclusive Economic Zone, law of the sea, legal framework

Dennis, Rona, with Grahame Applegate, Anne Casson, Tom Tomich and Fred Stolle. "The recent outbreak of fires in Indonesia, 28 March 2000." Center for International Forestry Research. News Highlights.
- Research results from CIFOR & ICRAF on fire hotspots which peaked in mid-March in the provinces of Riau and West Kalimantan. Ground evidence and satellite imagery confirm media reports of the major cause: large-scale land clearing fires deliberately set by plantation companies. Recent monitoring and prevention efforts are discussed and evaluated.

Desker, Barry. Protecting the Malacca Straits. Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies, October 2005.
- Addresses threats to shipping in the Malacca Straits from pirates and terrorists and recommends cooperation among concerned parties to provide improved security. Keywords: terrorism, al Qaeda, hijacking

Dillon, Dana. Maritime Piracy: Defining the Problem. SAIS Review; Vol.25, No.1, Winter-Spring 2005.
- The current definition of piracy is outdated and doesn't sufficiently describe the problem. This article explores the bounds of the current definition as well as suggesting possible alternatives.

Dire Straits: Piracy and Maritime Terror in Southeast Asia. Military Technology; Mar 2005; 29, 3, pg.44.
- Assesses the severity of the the pirate threat in the South China Sea and examines some of the methods being used to control that threat.

Djalal, Hasjim. Draft guidelines for military and intelligence gathering activities in the EEZ and their means and manner of implementation and enforcement. Marine Policy Volume 29, Issue 2 , March 2005, Pages 175-183.
- Discusses issues involved in intelligence-gathering activities in Exclusive Economic Zones and provides suggestions for the settling of disputes between concerned states.

Djalal, Hasjim. South China Sea Island Disputes. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement No. 8 (The Biodiversity of the South China Sea): pp. 9-21. 2000.
- Discusses some of the situations, implications, and future of bilateral, trilateral or, even multilateral island disputes in the South China Sea.

Djalal, Hasjim and Townsend-Gualt, Ian. Preventive Diplomacy: Managing Potential Conflicts in the South China Sea. (Chapter published in Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World, Crocker, Hampson, and Aall editors, United States Institute of Peace Press. 1999).
- Comprehensive analysis of “workshop process” utilized by ASEAN diplomats. Keywords: working groups, dispute resolution, confidence building.

Down to Earth News. (Indonesian) Coastal Resources in Crisis. Down to Earth No. 45, May 2000.
- "Coastal communities are being impoverished by large-scale illegal fishing operations; the country's coral reefs are badly damaged and its mangroves are rapidly disappearing. Indonesia's coastal resources are facing a grave crisis."

Duda, Alfred M. Contributing to Ocean Security: Global Environment Facility Support for Integrated Management of Land-Sea Interactions. Journal of International Affairs, 2005.
- Examines the connection between environmental policies in regards to coastal areas and poverty reduction goals.

Dying to Leave - the business of Human Trafficking Handbook. Educational Broadcasting Corporation, Inc, 2004.
- Human trafficking ventures range from small-time, mom-and-pop operations to tightly run, well-organized structures that operate on a competitive international basis.


East Asia Study Guide at Middlebury College
Access to this guide is provided through resources at Middlebury College. The guide includes a vast array of literary resources such as journals, magazines, newspapers, books and foreign translations etc. It also provides statistical, historical, political and economic information amongst other similar topics pertaining to East Asian Studies.

Economy, Elizabeth. China's Rise in Southeast Asia: Implications for the United States. Journal of Contemporary China, 2004.
- “During the past few decades, China’s economic success has permitted it to pursue a greater role on the international stage.” Keywords: Chinese regional diplomacy, leadership role, human rights

Eklöf, Stefan. Piracy: a critical perspective ,IIAS Newsletter 36.
-"Maritime piracy, especially in Southeast Asia, has recently attracted a great deal of attention in international media and among analysts. Contrary to popular impression, however, piracy is not a great or growing menace to international shipping, and as far as academic research goes, there are a range of more pressing issues that demand the attention of social scientists."

Energy and Environment Data -- East Asia and Southeast Asia, US Energy Information Administration, August 1999
- Tracks growth in GDP, oil consumption, and carbon emissions in Southeast Asian countries prior to the 1997 financial crisis.
, US Energy Information Administration, August 1999

Energy Highlights for Selected Asian Countries, US Energy Information Administration, August 1999.
- Petroleum, natural gas, and coal consumption and resources in Southeast Asian countries

Evers, Hans-Dieter, and Solvay Gerke. The Strategic Importance of the Straits of Malacca for World Trade and Regional Development. ZEF Working Paper Series.
"The Straits' cultural and bio-diversity bear great opportunities for the economic and social development of the littoral states of Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand. Peace and stability in the region are a precondition for regional development, uninterrupted energy supplies and international trade between the European Union and East Asia."

Former Legal Advisers' Letter on Accession to the Law of the Sea Convention. The American Journal of International Law; Vol.98, No.2, Apr. 2004 pg.302-307.
- Letter signed by former legal advisors to the US Department of State endorsing the US accession to the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

Fredrickson, Acharn Terry. A recurring dream, The Post Publishing Public Co., Ltd, 12 January 2000.
-The opening the sky train last month was somewhat of a milestone for Thailand. It marked one of the few examples in recent history of the actual completion of a mega-project. Others, like the new airport and the moribund Hopewell elevated railway project, are still only distant dreams

Fullbrook, David China to Europe via a new Burma road,
Fullbrook, David, Asia Times Online Ltd., 2004.
- David Fullbrook discusses the possible future oil trading routes between China and Europe, which do not pass through the Strait of Malacca.

Ghosh, P. K. Maritime Security Challenges in South Asia and the Indian Ocean: Response Strategies. Center for Strategic and International Studies, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 2004.
- “Highlights maritime security challenges that weigh heavily in the region geographically bounded by the Indian Ocean, and with special reference to the South Asian littorals. Viable responses and strategies to address these challenges are also posited for consideration.” Keywords: piracy, terrorism, gunrunning, mining

Gjetnes, Marius. Maritime Zones Generated by the Spratlys: Legal Analysis and Geographical Overview. University of Oslo.
- Considers the legal issues involved with sovereignty claims over the Spratly Islands. Keywords: Law of the Sea, Exclusive Economic Zone, convention

Godwin, Paul H. B. China As Regional Hegemon? Honolulu: Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, 2004.
- Assesses China’s prospects for achieving regional hegemony, its perceptions of the U.S. and the implications of those perceptions on Chinese and US policy. Keywords: Sino-American relations..

"Going for the Jugular". The Economist, 10 June 2004.
-The Strait of Malacca, through which a quarter of the world's maritime trade passes, makes a tempting target for terrorists and pirates

Green, Alison and Peter J. Mous. Delineating the Coral Triangle, its ecoregions and functional seascapes, Southeast Asia Center for Marine Protected Areas workshop, Bali, Indonesia, 30 April - 2 May 2003.
-This document is based on the results of an experts workshop organized by The Nature Conservancy’s South East Asia Center for Marine Protected Areas, Bali, Indonesia (April 30 - May 2, 2003). During this workshop, 20 scientists and GIS experts outlined the Coral Triangle, the area in Southeast Asia that comprises the highest reef biodiversity on Earth. Furthermore, sub-units (ecoregions and functional seascapes) were identified. This process is the first step in marine Ecoregional Conservation Assessment, The Nature Conservancy’s approach to priority setting.

Grundy-Warr, Carl. Grey-Area Phenomena in Southeast Asia: Piracy, Drug Trafficking and Political Terrorism.Contemporary Southeast Asia; Vol.20, No.1, April 1998.
- Review of Peter Chalk's assessment of the "GAP" (grey-area phenomenon) of maritime piracy, drug trafficking and production, and political terrorism in Southeast Asia.

Gupta, Vipin and Bernstein, Adam. Keeping an Eye on the Islands: Remote Monitoring in the South China Sea. Sandia National Laboratory. May 1999.
- "This paper explores the technical feasibility and utility of aerial and commercial satellite imaging for cooperative monitoring of islands, islets, and reefs in the South China Sea - a region that has been a source of conflict amongst the coastal states."


Hayashi, Moritaka. Military and intelligence gathering activities in the EEZ: definition of key terms. Marine Policy Volume 29, Issue 2, March 2005, Pages 123-137.
- “This chapter reviews the origin and use and interpretation of such terms as “peaceful uses,” “peaceful purpose,” “freedom of navigation and overflight,” “residual rights,” “other internationally lawful uses of the sea,” “installations and structures,” “due regard,” “normal mode,” hostile intent, and abuse of rights with a view to clarifying their agreed meaning and identifying any areas of disagreement.”

Herrmann, Wilfried A. Maritime Piracy and Anti-Piracy Measures: Part 1: Piracy - Increasing Challenge with New Dimensions. Naval Forces; Vol.25, No.2, 2004 pg.18.
- Addresses the increase in pirate attacks (especially in Southeast and South Asia) and the possibility that this rise could lead to maritime terrorist attacks. The article also observes the difficulty of defining piracy and some methods used to reduce the risk of pirate attacks.

Historical Evidence To Support China's Sovereignty over Nansha Islands. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, 2000.
-China was the first to discover, name, develop,conduct economic activities on and exercise jurisdiction of the Nansha Islands

Ho, Joshua. The Security of Sea Lanes in Southeast Asia. Military Technology; Vol.29, No.5, May 2005, pg.14.
- Predicts a shift in economic power from the US to Asia that will increase the need for safe shipping lanes. The number and severity of piracy attacks has increased, as economic power shifts to Asia this trend will likely continue unless the Southeast Asian countries take action against piracy.

Huang, Hua-Lun. Book Review: Piracy in Southeast Asia: Status, Issues, and Responses. Asian Criminology; 2007, pg. 79-80.
- Few books have been written on the issues of Piracy in the South China Sea region, the publication examines the issues of pirate typologies while looking at international cooperation strategies used amongst South Asian countries to combat piracy.

Husain, Adil. China, Taiwan, and the South China Sea - An Annotated Bibliography. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, 2000.
-Many countries, world public opinions and publications of other countries recognize the Nansha Islands as Chinese territory.


ICC International Maritime Bureau: Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships.
- Annual report (Jan 1 - Dec 31 2007), an analysis of world wide reported incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships. For more information and weekly reports, visit the
IMB website



International Boundaries News Database
- University of Durham's International Boundaries Research Unit (IBRU) provides a searchable "Boundary news database" with 10,000+ boundary-related reports from a wide range of news sources around the world dating from 1991 to approximately six months before the current date.

International Recognition Of China's Sovereignty over the Nansha Islands. South China Sea WWW VL. June 2000.
- Lists the various governments, conferences, and publications since 1912 that have recognized Chinese sovereignty over the Spratly Islands. Keywords: encyclopedia, territory.


Ji Guoxing, Maritime Jurisdiction in the Three China Seas: Options For Equitable Settlement, Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, 1995.
- Excellent analysis of the main territorial and jurisdictional disputes in the South China Sea, East China Sea, and Yellow Sea. Outlines three options for reaching a settlement. Keywords: UN Law of the Sea Convention, continental shelf

Ji Guoxing, Rough Waters in the South China Sea: Navigation Issues and Confidence-Building Measures. AsiaPacific, August 2001.
- Discusses confidence-building efforts on practical navigation issues and managing “incidents at sea.”—Recommends first bilateral and then multilateral agreements. Keywords: cooperation, EEZ, fishing

Ji Guoxing, SLOC Security in the Asia Pacific. AsiaPacific, February 2000.
-"The economic development of Asian Pacific countries in the passing two to three decades has been closely related to seaborne trade, and the importance of sea lines of communication (SLOC) to regional countries would be much increased in the twenty-first century.  SLOC security is now one of the priorities in regional countries' strategic thinking and policy making."

Jin-Hyun Paik and Anthony Bergin. Maritime Security in the Asia-Pacific. Asia's Emerging Regional Order: Reconciling Traditional and Human Security. United Nations University Press; 2000, 177 - 191.
- Covers the major current issues of dispute in the South China Sea, evaluating the role of the UNCLOS in resolving or exacerbating those issues and suggests new ways in which the Convention can be applied and improved. Keywords: sea lanes of communication, resource conflicts, maritime boundaries.

Jinming, Li and Li Dexia. The Dotted Line on the Chinese Map of the South China Sea: A Note. Ocean Development & International Law; 2003, 34:287–295.
- Provides details of the history of the dotted line marking Chinese claims in the South China Sea since 1947 and presents the current opinions of scholars and others on the issue. Keywords: cartography, Chinese territory.

Joyner, Christopher C. The Spratly Islands Dispute in the South China Sea: Problems, Policies, and Prospects for Diplomatic Accommodation.
- Focusing on the Spratly Islands dispute since 1982, this article “assesses geopolitical and legal nuances of disputes in the South China Sea, with a view to proposing confidence-building measures (CBMs) that might contribute to the resolution or setting aside of competing claims in the region.” Keywords: Mischief Reef, oil and natural gas, military conflicts.


Keyuan, Zou. Law of the Sea Issues Between the United States and East Asian States. Ocean Development & International Law; Vol.39, No.1, Jan 2008, pg.69-93.
- "Although having not yet acceded to the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea, the United States has contributed to the development of the international law of the sea in numerous ways, including responding to the so-called excessive maritime claims in East Asia and creating new rules of maritime enforcement." Keyworks: China, East Asia, law of the sea, United States.

Keuan, Zou. Maritime Boundary Delimitation in the Gulf of Tonkin. Ocean Development & International Law, 1999.
- Explores and assesses the legal issues relating to the boundary delimitation of the Gulf of Tonkin within the context of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Keywords: Bach Long Vi Island, China.

Keuan, Zou. The Sino-Vietnamese Agreement on Maritime Boundary Delimitation in the Gulf of Tonkin. Ocean Development & International Law; 2005, 36:13–24.
- “This article addresses the recently ratified Sino-Vietnamese Boundary Delimitation Agreement in the Gulf of Tonkin and its implications for bilateral cooperation and development of friendly and neighboring relations between China and Vietnam.” Keywords: China, fishery management, Vietnam.

Keyuan, Zou. Seeking Effectiveness for the Crackdown of Piracy at Sea. Journal of International Affairs; Vol.59, No.1, Fall 2005, pg.117.
Overview of the importance of shipping lanes in the South China Sea to international trade and the various threats of piracy.

Kim, Duk-ki. A Korean perspective. Marine Policy Volume 29, Issue 2 , March 2005, Pages 157-161.
From South Korea's perspective, the EEZ is a sui generic zone in which military and intelligence activities are limited or not allowed without the consent of the coastal State. This is equally applicable in peace and war. Although several States stress that Article 58 of the 1982 UNCLOS permits such activities, increasing EW and IW capabilities may result in reinterpretation of certain provisions of the 1982 UNCLOS

Kirk, Donald. Pirates of the Straits.
The possibilities for terrorism at sea are all too evident from the relative ease with which veteran pirates periodically board and pillage ships as they traverse the 550-mile-long Straits of Malacca before threading the eye of the needle between the crowded Singapore harbor, dominated by huge gantry cranes and oil refineries, and Indonesian islands.

Koknar, Ali M. Terror on the High Seas. Security Management; Vol.48, Iss. 6, Jun 2004, pg.75.
- Article outlines the rise of piracy as a type of organized crime and the extensive costs it imposes on the shipping industry.

Krasnow, Jay. Spratly Islands Dispute. Inventory of Conflict and Environment (ICE) Case Studies. May 1997.
- "Approximately 44 of the 51 small islands and reefs are claimed or occupied by China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Taiwan, Malaysia and Brunei. The conflict is the result of overlapping sovereignty claims to various Spratly Islands thought to possess substantial natural resources -- chiefly oil, natural gas, and seafood."

Kuan-Hsiung Wang. Bridge over troubled waters: Fisheries cooperation as a resolution to the South China Sea conflicts. The Pacific Review, Vol. 14 No. 4 2001: 531–551.
Kuan-Hsiung Wang. Bridge over troubled waters: Fisheries cooperation as a resolution to the South China Sea conflicts. The Pacific Review, Vol. 14 No. 4 2001: 531–551.


Laczko, Frank and June J.H. Lee. Developing Better Indicators of Human Trafficking for Asia. September 2003.
- "The phenomenon of human trafficking is today one of the major concerns of governments and organizations active in the field of migration..."

Lasater, Martin. Conflict in the Taiwan Strait: The American Response. February 2000.
- Under most conditions, the United States will intervene militarily to prevent the PRC from defeating Taiwan. Tables are provided to show possible scenarios and actions taken by Taiwan, and the PRC and American response to each scenario.

Law of the Sea.
Briefing book on the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea.

Leifer, Michael. Stalemate in the South China Sea. Asia Research Center, London School of Economics and Political Science. 1999.
- How the Spratly Islands came to be an issue of dispute. Suggests that, given limited current power projection capabilities, the dispute is in a state of stalemate. Keywords: ASEAN, Mischief Reef, Paracel Islands.

Leiter, Daniel and Stella Nordhagen. ASEAN Trade Patterns in the South China Sea Governing the South China Sea. Winter Term 2006, Middlebury College.
- “This website seeks to provide an overview of trade in the South China Sea Region, focusing particularly on the countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).” Keywords: AFTA, Financial Crisis.

Luft, Gal and Anne Korin. Terrorism Goes To Sea. Foreign Affairs, November/December 2004.
- “The number of pirate attacks worldwide has tripled in the past decade, and new evidence suggests that piracy is becoming a key tactic of terrorist groups. In light of al Qaeda's professed aim of targeting weak links in the global economy, this new nexus is a serious threat: most of the world's oil and gas is shipped through pirate-infested waters.” Keywords: oil, security, pirates, International Maritime Organization.


Maarif, Syamsul, and Indroyono Soesilo. Opinion and Editorial: Safeguarding Rich Marine Resources. The Jakarta Post,01/07/2008.
- Report on a meeting of six governments to discuss new measures to protect the resources of the Coral Triangle and support marine diversity.

Macartney, Jane. Asia Piracy Costs $25bln a Year, Says Expert. Planet Ark World Environment News, 11/12/2002.
- James Warren of the School of Asian Studies at Murdoch University in Australia reports on the increase in pirate attacks in the South China Sea area. The article also notes an increase in the use of technology by pirates to track and capture cargo ships in the region.

 Mak, JN. Incidents at Sea: Shipjacking, Maritime Muggings, Thefts and Illegal Migration in Southeast Asia.


- Analyzes trends of increasing piracy and possible causes in the the South China Sea region.

MALACCA: The Impact of Transportation on Wildlife in the Malacca Straits [HTML version].
[Microsoft Word version]
- American University,Trade and Environment Database Project:
“examines the globalization impact of transportation through the Straits of Malacca on undersea life…” Keywords: fishing, dugong, oil drilling.

Marine Policy
- Marine Policy is the leading journal of ocean policy studies. It offers researchers, analysts and policy makers a unique combination of analyses in the principal social science disciplines relevant to the formulation of marine policy. The journal covers: international, regional and national marine policies; institutional arrangements for the management and regulation of marine activities, including fisheries and shipping; conflict resolution; marine pollution and environment; conservation and use of marine resources.

Marine Protected Areas in South East Asia - Abstract and summary List

- Source: Asean Regional Center for Biodiveristy Conservation, 2002.
(URL: www.arcbc.org/arcbcweb/publications/mpa.htm)
-Full text PDF - 142 pages - 2.35 mb:

Maritime Shipping in Northeast Asia: Law of the Sea, Sea Lanes, and Security. University of California Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, Policy Paper 33, February 1998.
- Papers: Introduction by Michael Stankiewicz, Developments in Asian Maritime Trade by Stephen J. Meyrick, Northeast Asia: Transitional Navigational Issues and Possible Cooperative Responses by Mark J. Valencia, Marine Carriage of Petroleum with Special Reference to Northeast Asia by Chia Lin Sien, Sea Lines of Communication (SLOC) Security and Access by Dr. Stanley B. Weeks, Security of SLOCs in East Asia by Seo-Hang Lee.

Mastel, Greg. Ties That Will Bind China, Taiwan. LA Times, May 28, 2000.
- While economic ties between China and Taiwan are increasing, China continues to criticize any indications by Taiwanese leaders that Taiwan may seek independent status.

Medalia, Jonathan . Terrorist Nuclear Attacks on Seaports: Threat and Response, CRS Web, 2005.
-A terrorist nuclear attack on a US seaport could cause local devastation and affect the global economy. Terrorists might obtain a bomb in several ways, though each poses difficulties. Ability to detect a bomb appears limited. The United States is using technology, intelligence, international cooperation, etc., to try to thwart an attack. Issues for Congress include safeguarding foreign nuclear material, mitigating economic effects of an attack, and allocating funds between ports and other potential targets. This report will be updated as needed.

Medalia, Jonathan . Port and Maritime Security: Potential for Terrorist Nuclear Attack Using Oil Tankers, CRS Web, 2005.
- While much attention has been focused on threats to maritime security posed by cargo container ships, terrorists could also attempt to use oil tankers to stage an attack. If they were able to place an atomic bomb in a tanker and detonate it in a US port, they would cause massive destruction and might halt crude oil shipments worldwide for some time. Detecting a bomb in a tanker would be difficult. Congress may consider various options to address this threat. This report will be updated as needed.

Meyrick, Stephen J. IGCC Policy Paper 33: Developments in Asian Maritime Trade
- Overview of trends in trade and economic growth within Southeast Asia and their complementary relationship to trends in the region’s shipping industry from the 1970’s through 2000. Keywords: ASEAN, containers, dry bulk

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People's Republic of China. Basic Stance and Policy of the Chinese Government in Solving the South China Sea Issue. 2000.
- "The Chinese Government has always stood for negotiated settlement of international disputes through peaceful means. In this spirit, China has solved questions regarding territory and border with some neighboring countries through bilateral consultations in an equitable, reasonable and amicable manner. This position also applies to the Nansha Islands."

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People's Republic of China. Historical Evidence to Support China's Sovereignty over Nansha Islands. 2000.
- "China was the first to discover, name, develop, conduct economic activities on and exercise jurisdiction of the Nansha Islands."

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People's Republic of China. International Recognition of China's Sovereignty over the Nansha Islands. 2000.
- "Many countries, world public opinions and publications of other countries recognize the Nansha Islands as Chinese territory."

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People's Republic of China. The Issue of South China Sea. June 2000.
- "China has indisputable sovereignty over the Nansha Islands and their adjacent waters."

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People's Republic of China. Jurisprudential Evidence to Support China's Sovereignty over the Nansha Islands. 2000.
- "China has indisputable sovereignty over the Nansha Islands and it has ample jurisprudential evidence to support this."

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People's Republic of China. Nansha Islands - Origins. 2000.
- "China has indisputable sovereignty over the Nansha Islands and their adjacent waters."

Mingjiang, Li. Pan-Tonkin Gulf Cooperation: De-securitising the South China Sea? RSIS Commentaries; Jan. 10, 2008.
- Article on the potential of the Pan-Tonkin Gulf cooperation proposal to de-securitise the South China Sea area and foster multilateral cooperation in maritime transportation, environmental protection, and joint resource exploitation.

Mo, John. "Options to Combat Maritime Piracy in Southeast Asia". Ocean Development And International Law, 2000.
- “It is argued that some form of government cooperation involving most of the governments of the Southeast Asian region is the best way to combat maritime piracy, although it is not an easy task due to various political, economical, and historical reasons.” Keywords: IMB, shipping industry.

Mott, Patrick, "JOMSRE-3 Trip Report, South China Sea WWW VL, July 2006.
- Report on the Joint Philippine-Vietnamese Marine Scientific Research Expedition through the Spratly Islands during April 11-23, 2006.


The Nature Conservancy, Delineating the Coral Triangle, its ecoregions and functional seascapes.
20 scientists and GIs experts outlined the Coral Triangle, the area in Southeast Asia that comprises the highest reef biodiversity on Earth. Furthermore, sub-units (ecoregions and functional seascapes) were identified. This process is the first step in marine Ecoregional Conservation Assessment, The Nature Conservancy’s approach to priority setting.

New Power Dynamics in Southeast Asia: Changing Security Cooperation and Competition. The Stanley Foundation: Policy Dialogue Brief, 2007.
- A brief summary of the findings of the conference as interpreted by the project organizers. The summary touches on a number of different security issues within the region of Southeast Asia.

'No proof' that pirates have terror links. Singapore Press Holdings, 24 June 2004.
- KUALA LUMPUR - US intelligence services have found no evidence that pirates operating in the narrow Straits of Malacca have links to terror networks in Southeast Asia, a senior US admiral said yesterday.

Naess, Tom. Epistemic Communities and Environmental Cooperation in the South China Sea. University of Oslo.
This paper looks at the regional scientific community in the South China Sea region, and to what extent an informal workshop initiated by Indonesia, where regional experts are allowed to participate and exchange views, have contributed to a new political regime1/political behavior in the region.

Nakamura, Ken. Sea Piracy and Japan's Security. Governing the South China Sea. (Winter Term 2006,) Middlebury College.
- Describes acts of piracy committed against Japanese ships, considers the economic implications of such acts, and suggests solutions. Keywords: Japan, Ocean Peacekeeping Force, Ship Loc

Nolt, James. The China-Taiwan Military Balance. January 2000. Published in Winston L. Yang and Deborah A. Brown, eds, Across the Taiwan Strait: Exchanges, Conflicts and Negotiations (Center for Asian Studies, St. John's University, New York, 1999), pp. 181-219.
- While China is acquiring greater military capability in absolute terms, it is actually becoming weaker militarily relative to Taiwan and all of its other potential rivals except Russia.

Ng, Peter K. L. and K. S. Tan. The state of marine biodiversity in the South China Sea. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement No. 8 (The Biodiversity of the South China Sea): 2000, 3-7.
- Discusses the obstacles facing biologists in the South China Sea trying to gauge biodiversity and provides link to checklists designed to help prevent misidentification of species. Keywords: marine organisms, Technical Working Group on Scientific Research

Nordhaug, Kristen. Taiwan and the South China Sea Conflict: the «China connection» revisited. University of Oslo.
In this paper I investigate the claims and policies of one less well-known party in the Spratly conflict, the Republic of China on Taiwan (ROC). My discussion focuses on how Taipei relates to the conflict between the PRC and Southeast Asian claimants.

Nossum,Johan Henrik. Baselines in the South China Sea. University of Oslo.
This paper is an introduction to the methodology of utilizing straight baselines, and it will present two areas where the development of the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) leads to uncertainties when applying the straight baseline regime. The paper will also look into the possibility to reduce the disputed area in the region by an appropriate appliance of the straight baseline regime, and if such an appliance could support UNCLOS’ role as a tool for conflict resolution


Odgaard, Liselotte. The South China Sea: ASEAN's Security Concerns About China. Security Dialogue, Vol 34, 11-24, 2003.
- This article investigates whether the South China Sea is a source of internal disagreement or unity in ASEAN.

Odgaard, Liselotte. Conflict Control and Crisis Management between China and Southeast Asia: an Analysis of the Workshops on Managing Potential Conflicts in the South China Sea. Aarhus University.
- “It is the central contention of this paper that the workshops, within a setting of traditional military power balancing, have initiated a practice of coordination, consultation and limited cooperation between the entities which creates a basis for agreement on the limits of acceptable behavior in the South China Sea.” Keywords: Spratly, Workshops, UNCLOS, Mischief Reef.

Ong, Graham Gerard. Pre-empting Maritime Terrorism in Southeast Asia. Institute of South East Asian Studies, 29 November 2002.
- There is increasing evidence that al-Qaeda’s terrorist network has taken sail through their attacks on ships worldwide. Keyword: Cole, Bali, Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Security

Orbach, Michael K. Beyond the Freedom of the Seas. National Academy of Sciences Auditorium, Ocean Policy for the Third Millennium (Fourth Annual Roger Revelle Commemorative Lecture).13 November 2002.
-Most terrestrial space and resources were in the past “open access, common pool,” owned by no one and used by all . As densities of use increased, governance institutions developed to create order in that use, and to channel its costs and benefits. Such incursions to the “open access, common pool” notion are now occurring in the ocean, and in the atmosphere, creating significant changes.

O'Rourke, Ronald. CRS Report for Congress: China Naval Modernization: Implications for US Navy Capabilities. Congressional Research Service; Feb. 4, 2008.
- Report addressing the question of how China's military modernization should be factored into decisions about US navy programs.

Ország-Land, Thomas . UN launches global initiative to defend Malacca straits. Jane's Information Group, January 2005.
- “Military aggression and exploration endeavors conducted by China since 1992, however, have brought into question the validity of the 1992 joint declaration and raises the question of what long-term, peaceful solution could prevent the region from erupting into a continuum of military incidents over sovereignty rights to the natural resource-rich Spratly Islands.”


Pacific region countries and marine-related multilateral environment agreements. IGO, July 2004.

Paracel Islands, CIA Factbook.
- The Paracel Islands are surrounded by productive fishing grounds and by potential oil and gas reserves. In 1932, French Indochina annexed the islands and set up a weather station on Pattle Island; maintenance was continued by its successor, Vietnam. China has occupied the Paracel Islands since 1974, when its troops seized a South Vietnamese garrison occupying the western islands. The islands are claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam.

Peril on the Sea. The Economist, 2 Oct 2003.
-Are terrorists now aiming to block shipping lanes and disrupt the flow of oil and other goods ?

Piracy and Armed Robbery at Sea. IMO Library Services, Information Sheet No. 28, 8 November 2004.
-Facts on piracy and armed robbery at sea. Includes list of incident reports, Maritime committees, conference papers, publications, and additional resources.

Piracy and Maritime Terror in Southeast Asia:Dire Straits. www.iiss.org/stratcom, July 2004.
"...US proposals for a Regional Maritime Security Initiative (RMSI) have provoked controversy amongst South East Asian Government..."

Poon, Derek. Naval Modernization and Power Projection in the South China Sea. Governing the South China Sea. Middlebury College, Winter Term 2006.
- “This website aims to provide an overview on naval and air modernization in the countries bordering the South China Sea.” Keywords: aircraft, defense, military expenditures

Puchala, Donald. Of Pirates and Terrorists: What Experience and History Teach. Contemporary Security Policy, Vol.26, No.1 (April 2005), pp.1–24.
- “Though never eliminated, and ever recurrent, piracy has been periodically suppressed. In light of the present-day challenges of international terrorism, therefore, the history of piracy might be usefully examined for possible lessons about dealing with transitional menacers.” Keywords: privateers, globalization, asymmetrical warfare


Raffael, Paul. The Pirate Hunters. Smithsonia.com; July 25, 2007.
- Describes the recent climb in pirate attacks around the globe and the role of the IMB in reporting and preventing such attacks.

Raman, B. (Institute For Topical Studies, Chennai). Chinese Territorial Assertions: The Case of the Mischief Reef. Security & Political Risk Analysis (SAPRA) India think tank. January 14, 1999.
- "China has ongoing disputes with Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei regarding conflicting claims of sovereignty over different islands in the Spratly group in the South China Sea, but its assertion of its claim over the Mischief Reef at the expense of the Philippines is an educative case study of how China doggedly pursues its irredentist territorial claims - by stealth, if possible, and by other means, including force, if necessary."

RECAAP Information Sharing Center, Annual Report, 2007.
- Subtitled "Adding Value, Charting Trends." ReCAAP (Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships in Asia) is a government-to-goverment agreement to prevent armed robbery against ships in Asia. The ISC serves as a platform for research and information sharing.

Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indicator of Threats to the World's Coral Reefs. World Resources Institute, 1998.
- Published online and in print with the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM), the World Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC), and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), this is the first global assessment of coral reefs to map areas at risk from overfishing, coastal development, and other human activity.

Ren Xiaofeng, A Chinese Perspective. Marine Policy Volume 29, Issue 2 , March 2005, Pages 139-146.
Regarding the regime of military and intelligence gathering activities in the EEZ, China argues that the freedoms of navigation and overflight in the EEZ have certain restrictions including that the activity must be peaceful and not threaten to use force against the coastal State. This includes military surveys, military maneuvers, and military reconnaissance which are a form of battlefield preparation. These activities are also subject to due regard for the rights of the coastal State. China also argues that there are serious shortcomings regarding the regime of marine scientific research (MSR) in the EEZ and that marine surveys or military surveys carried out by MSR platforms require the consent of the coastal State.

Rethinaraj, T. S. Gopi. China's Energy and Regional Security Perspectives. Defense & Security Analysis Vol. 19, No. 4, 377-388, December 2003.
Chinese economic growth carry significant implications for energy security in the Asia–Pacific region, despite reported improvements in the country’s overall energy efficiency. China has one of the largest recoverable coal reserves in the world;3 however, its domestic oil and gas production are not sufficient to meet current and the projected future demand

Richardson, Michael. A Time Bomb for Global Trade: Maritime-related Terrorism in an Age of Weapons of Mass Destruction.
The world has not experienced a major terrorist attack using ships or containers – at least not yet. But it is clear that terrorists can see the potential of using the maritime trading system to conceal weapons or agents for attack purposes or to provide funding or support for their operations

Richardson, Michael. China’s rise shifts balance of power in Asia. THE STRAITS TIMES, Tuesday 7 September 2004.
As China's growing power and influence permeate Asia and the Pacific, countries in the region are recalibrating their relations with Beijing to acknowledge its status and defuse potential conflict. These adjustments signal to both the United States and its ally Japan that the old strategic and economic balance in which they were the dominant players is shifting to include China as an increasingly important pole.

Roach, Ashley. Enhancing Maritime Security in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. Journal of International Affairs; Vol. 59,1, Fall 2005 pg.97.
- Article examines the various threats posed to shipping and the marine environment in the Straits of Malacca while reviewing the steps needed to give law enforcement officials the means to combat piracy in the area.

Rosenberg, David. A Review Essay on ASEAN-China Relations: Realities and Prospects.
The global implications of China's rise are nowhere more evident than in its relations with ASEAN. ASEAN-China relations must contend with three formidable challenges: how to cope with a rising China when it becomes a superpower in its own right; in an East Asian region with - for the first time - both a strong China and a strong Japan; and with a United States which aims to maintain its sole superpower status. The major security issues facing ASEAN-China relations are nontraditional ones such as the internal impacts of globalization due to the financial crisis of 1997, the destabilizing world market pressures on domestic society, and the increasing economic competition among member-states that test the evolving bonds of a growing ASEAN. China's foreign policy reorientation and post-Cold War global market forces have opened an extraordinary window of opportunity for strengthening ASEAN-China relations.

Rosenberg, David. Biodiversity, Geology, and the Wallace Line in Southeast Asia. South China Sea WWW VL. Winter-Spring 2000.
Southeast Asia is an area of extraordinarily high biodiversity. This high diversity in land and sea is a result of three major factors: the overlap of independently evolved species ranges, high rates of local speculation, and differentially high survival among temporally and spatially heterogeneous habitats (McManus 1985).

Rosenberg, David Contested Borderlands of the South China Sea, BBC World Service, 21 April 2009.
On 8 March 2009, the Pentagon reported that five Chinese ships had confronted an unarmed US ocean surveillance ship, the USNS Impeccable, and engaged in "reckless and dangerous maneuvers" about 70 nautical miles or 120 kilometers south of Hainan Island. The Impeccable incident demonstrated how volatile unresolved questions can be. What US military activities are permissible in China’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in the South China Sea? How does the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) govern territorial claims in these waters?

Rosenberg, David. Coral Reef Pollution in the South China Sea. South China Sea WWW VL. Winter-Spring 2000.
Over 30% of the world's coral reefs are found in Southeast Asia, especially around the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines (see map: "Coral Reefs of Southeast Asia"). These coral reefs provide a habitat for the highest biological diversity in the world (Wilkinson et al. 1993). Most shallow marine biota reach their peak diversity in these areas. These reefs are under threat from anthropogenic pressures as a result of population growth, urbanization, and economic growth in the area. Reefs are being degraded and damaged by land and sea based human activities, including organic and inorganic pollution, sedimentation, and overfishing.

Rosenberg, David, Christopher Chung. Maritime Security in the South China Sea: Coordinating Coastal and User State Priorities.
Maritime security concerns in the South China Sea are increasing for several reasons: higher volumes of shipping traffic, protection of Exclusive Economic Zone resources, piracy, terrorist threats, greater international scrutiny of ports and shipping, and the modernization of regional naval and coast guard forces. Coastal states and international user states have many overlapping interests in the South China Sea; for example, in promoting safe navigation through its busy sea lanes. On other issues, in particular, anti-piracy or anti-maritime terrorism measures, they have different views about the seriousness of the threat and the responses necessary to address it.

Rosenberg, David, "Environmental Pollution around the South China Sea: Developing a Regional Response to a Regional Problem," Resource Management in Asia-Pacific Working Paper No. 20, Division of Pacific and Asian History, Research School for Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University, 1999.
- “This paper provides one case study of how the member-nations of ASEAN – the Association of Southeast Asian Nations – are attempting to deal with a major cause of transboundary air pollution, smoke haze from forest fires.” Keywords: greenhouse gas, energy, Indonesia

Rosenberg, David. Dire Straits: Maritime Security in the South China Sea
From the Taiwan Strait to the Strait of Malacca, security concerns are growing around the South China Sea. While the Bush Administration sees a resurgent Chinese military threat across the Taiwan Strait and a terrorist threat in the Strait of Malacca, many countries between the Straits are more concerned about security for their maritime resources from the threats of competitors, traffickers, poachers, and pirates. How can these competing security priorities be resolved?

Rosenberg, David. Managing the Resources of the China Seas: China's Bilateral Fisheries Agreements with Japan, South Korea, and Vietnam
The press is filled with reports on the multiple conflicts erupting in the China seas: territorial conflicts, resource conflicts, and historical conflicts. There is one area, however, where remarkable progress is being made in cooperative resource management. China has been making slow but steady progress in negotiating a network of bilateral agreements with Japan, South Korea, and Vietnam to manage their common fishery resources.

Rosenberg, David, Why a South China Sea Website? An Introductory Essay, South China Sea WWW Virtual Library. December, 1999.
This website provides information and research resources for students, scholars, journalists, and policy-makers interested in what people and governments around the South China Sea are doing about their regional economic, environment, and security problems.

Rowan, Joshua P. The U.S.-Japan Security Alliance,Asean, and The South China Sea Dispute, Asian Survey, Vol. XLV, no. 3, May/June 2005.
-The situation in the South China Sea—where sovereignty and oil and natural gas interests are converging—creates a flashpoint with significant policy implications for the US, Japan, and other Asian nations. Only the U.S.-Japan security alliance, operating in conjunction with the Association of Southeast
Asian Nations, can safely foster a long-term solution.

Roy, Dennis. Tension in the Taiwan Strait. Dept. of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey. March 2000.
- Roy discusses the PRC's motivations for threatening Taiwan, the potential impact of economic interchange across the Strait on Taiwan's security, the possible forms a PRC-Taiwan conflict might take, the role the USA plays in Taiwan's security, and approaches to alleviating the PRC threat to Taiwan.


San Pablo-Baviera, Aileen. The China factor in US alliances in East Asia and the Asia Pacific. Australian Journal of International Affairs; Vol. 57, No. 2, July 2003, 339-352.
- Seeks to provide an “understanding of the role that China plays in regional security in general, and the influence of such a role on the alliance system in particular.” Keywords: September 11, US-China relations, ASEAN

Saw Swee-Hock, and Sheng Lijun, Eds. ASEAN-China Relations: Realities and Prospects. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies; 2005.
- ISEAS conference report on China’s rapid rise and its impact on ASEAN.

Schippke, Wolfgang-The Spratly Islands
-Wolfgang Schippke has conducted research on various largely-undocumented small islands around the world, many of those are in the South China Sea. His study shows great attention to the precise geographical location and history of each Island, as well as the Island's current human activities.
The website is in English and German. Date: February 22, 1998.

- a free moderated electronic news list about environmental change and policy in Southeast Asia. The acronym stands for: Southeast Asian Science-Policy Network. Subscribe at

Security and Maritime Conflict in East Asia - Publications
Articles and dissertations on the South China Sea published by the University of Oslo and the International Peace Research Institute of Oslo.

Segal, Gerald. The Myth of Chinese Power: It's time to see China for what it is. Newsweek International, Sep. 20, 1999.
- On the eve of its 50th anniversary, Segal contends the PRC is neither as militarily powerful, nor as economically important as believed. China has a long way to go before it can challenge the West, or its neighbors in any substantial way.

Sengupta, Somini and Howard W. French. India and China Are Poised to Share Defining Moment. The New York Times, 10 April 2005.
- “Wen Jiabao, prime minister of China, began a four-day visit to India on Saturday just as the two countries - a third of humanity - are coming into their own at the same moment, with the potential for a dynamic shift in the world's politics and economy.” Keywords: India-China trade, border disputes, resources.

Sharma, O. P. An Indian perspective. Marine Policy Volume 29, Issue 2 , March 2005, Pages 147-151.
- “The 1982 UNCLOS does not curb military activities in foreign EEZs. By specifically prohibiting certain activities in the territorial sea, it follows that such activities are permissible outside of it… However, due to new threats and technological advances, the authority, capability and jurisdiction of coastal States is being enhanced. Thus guidelines are needed to avoid certain contradictions.” Keywords: EEZ regime; An Indian perspective

Shie, Tamara Renee. Ports in a Storm? The Nexus Between Counterterrorism, Counterproliferation, and Maritime Security in Southeast Asia. Issues & Insights, Vol. 4, No. 4, July 2004.
- “This paper recommends greater regional cooperation; an increase in cost burdensharing, technological collaboration, and capacity building; the creation of a truly regional maritime security initiative; and the adherence to and new proposals for UN maritime security conventions.” Keywords: Container Security Initiative, Proliferation Security Initiative, International Shipping and Port Facility Security Code.

Singapore Politics: Terrorism Fears Center on Maritime Piracy. Economist Intelligence Unit; June 9, 2004.
- Article on the need for multilateral cooperation to deal with issues of piracy in the Singapore-Indonesia area.

Singh, Ruchi, Background Report on the USNS Impeccable Incident of March 8, 2009, Middlebury College, June 2009.
A compilation of news reports, journal articles, maps, photos and videos.

Skaridov, Alexander S. Naval activity in the foreign EEZ—the role of terminology in law regime. Marine Policy Volume 29, Issue 2 , March 2005, Pages 153-155.
- “Definitions of terminology is the key to the application of the Law of the Sea. Definitions of a term can be determined from its generic characteristics and specific differences.” Keywords: Russia.

Smith, Gary J., Multilateralism and Regional Security in Asia: The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and APEC's Geopolitical Value, The Weatherhead Center for International Affairs Harvard University, 1997.,
- “Major powers traditionally do not wish to be tied down by middle and small sized powers, but institutions are emerging in Asia, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) and the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) group, in which multiple small and middle sized powers play leading roles.” Keywords: agreements, diplomacy, China.

Snyder, Craig, The Implications of Hydrocarbon Development in the South China Sea, International Journal, LII, Winter 1996-97:
- “This paper will explore how the possibility of economic windfalls due to resource exploitation add to the the difficulty in reaching any agreement among the rival claimants.” Keywords: EEZ, Spratly Islands, oil.

Snyder, Scott, The South China Sea Dispute: Prospects for Preventive Diplomacy, United State Institute of Peace, 1996,
- Outlines the various territorial claims involved in the disputes over the South China Seas and evaluates the prospects for success of several of the proposed resolution mechanisms. Keywords: Spratly Islands, Joint Resource Development, ASEAN, EEZ

Song, Yann-Huei. Declarations and Statements with Respect to the 1982 UNCLOS: Potential Legal Disputes between the United States and China after US Accession to the Convention. Ocean Development & International Law; Nov. 5, 2007.
- "Discusses the implications of US accession to the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea for the future development of Sino-American relations in the areas of ocean law and politics."

Song, Yann-Huei. The Overall Situation in the South china Sea in the New Millenium: Before and After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks. Ocean Development & International Law, 2003.
- “This contribution reviews the overall situation in the South China Sea (SCS) between 2000 and June 2002.” Keywords: Maritime Security

South China Sea Informal Working Group
The South China Sea Informal Working Group at the University of British Columbia, Canada is a tremendous resource tracking the jurisdictional conflicts in the South China Sea. This website provides detailed information about meetings, seminars and workshops about the South China Sea organized by the Research and Development Agency in Indonesia, along with the Department of Foreign Affairs. It is also a valuable source of similar, relevant updates, publications, papers and online resources.

South China Sea Region


- US Department of Energy
, Energy Information Agency, Country Analysis Brief.

Spratly Islands, CIA Factbook.
- The Spratly Islands consist of more than 100 small islands or reefs. They are surrounded by rich fishing grounds and potentially by gas and oil deposits. They are claimed in their entirety by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam, while portions are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines. About 45 islands are occupied by relatively small numbers of military forces from China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam. Brunei has established a fishing zone that overlaps a southern reef, but has not made any formal claim.

The Spratly Islands Dispute,
- American University, Inventory of Conflict and Environment (ICE) 1997

Spratly (or Spratley) Islands -
Google News Search

Spratly Islands, Globalsecurity.org
- Overview, maps, and statistics of the Spratly Islands.

Stankiewicz, Michael, ed., Maritime Shipping in Northeast Asia: Law of the Sea, Sea Lanes, and Security, 
- Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, 1998.

Stenseth, Leni. The Imagined China Threat in the South China Sea. University of Oslo.
- “Some argue that China’s policy is driven by a national ambition to take control of the entire Spratly area by military means. But is this really China’s intention?” Keywords: PRC, Mischief Reef, nationalism

Storey, Ian. The Triborder Sea Area: Maritime Southeast Asia's Ungoverned Space. Terrorism Monitor; Vol.5, Issue 19, 9/11/2007.
- Focuses on the need to address terrorist threats in the triborder sea area between the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia.

Stormont, William G. Confidence Building for Cooperation in an Environment of Conflicting Claims to Jurisdiction. Center for Asian Legal Studies, The University of British Columbia.
- In 1994, the actions of the Managing Political Conflicts in the South China Sea Initiative went further toward furthering its goals of preventing the escalation of tensions to military conflict and promoting an “atmosphere conducive to the resolution of the conflict… than in any year since the project’s inception.” Keywords: Mischief Reef, workshop, ASEAN Regional Forum

Strait Dispute Unlikely To Spark War. Taiwan News, 26 May 2004.
-Despite the continuous flow of harsh rhetoric emanating from the People's Republic of China and the warnings of numerous pundits at home and abroad, the chances of a conflict breaking out in the Taiwan Strait remain very limited.

Studeman, Michael, Calculating China's Advances in the South China Sea/ Identifying the Triggers of "Expansionism," Naval War College Review, 1998.
- “This article examines circumstances surrounding China's occupation of nine reefs in the Spratly island group in 1988, 1992, and 1995, in support of the thesis that economic threats have been the triggers for China's appropriation of territory in the South China Sea.” Keywords: PLAN, Mischief Reef, petroleum

Student-Faculty Collaborative Research Projects Online in the South China Sea WWW VL
-Middlebury College, 1999-2008

Study Abroad Asia
-Link here Study Abroad Asia is a part of the Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library Project and of the South Asia WWW Virtual Library. It provides information about US University/ College Study Abroad programs in various regions of Asia such as the Cornell Falcon Program in Japan and the SIT Nepal Program amongst many others.

Su, Steven Wei. The Territorial Dispute over the Tiaoyu/Senkaku Islands: An Update. Ocean Development & International Law, 36:45–61, 2005.
- “This article discusses one of the most difficult disputes in the world, the territorial dispute over the Tiaoyu Islands.” Keywords: Law of the Sea, East China Sea.

Sulu and Sulawesi Seas.
-Surrounded by Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, the Sulu and Sulawesi Seas contain about 450 species of coral (compared to only 60 in the entire Caribbean). The Sulu Sea's Tubbataha Reef, with corals covering more than 81,000 acres, is the heart of coral diversity for the region. These seas support one of the world's largest varieties of reef fish, as well as commercial and community fisheries. In recent years, overfishing and destructive fishing methods including the use of cyanide and dynamite have destroyed large sections of coral and depleted fish populations.

Sumaila, Ussif Rashid and Jennifer Jacquet. When Bad Gets Worse: Corruption and Fisheries. Sea Around Us Project and Fisheries Economics Research Unit, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia Vancouver.
- Explores different aspects of the issue of corruption in various sectors of the fishing industry.

Swanström, Niklas. Conflict Management and Negotiations in the South China Sea: The ASEAN Way? In Perspectives on the Conflict in the South China Sea: Workshop Proceedings, Knut Snildal (Comp.), Workshop on the Conflict in the South China Sea, 24-26 April 1999,Oslo, Norway. Hosted by the project Energy and Security in the South China Sea, Center for Development and the Environment, University of Oslo.
- “The purpose in this paper is to study how the conflict management process in the South China Sea (SCS) has been conducted in order to see which strategies have proved to be most successful in reaching a solution or in decreasing the intensity of the conflict, and why.”


Taiwan Strait II: The Risk of War. 6 June 2003.
- This International Crisis Group report affirms that military conflict is not in the interests of either China or Taiwan and suggests demilitarizing and confidence-building measures be undertaken by both parties. Keywords: One China, Taiwanese independence, United States role

Tetley, William. The Chinese/US Incident at Hainan - A Confrontation of Super Powers and Civilizations. McGill University.
- Uses 2001 collision between Chinese and US aircraft to frame five questions on international law, information collecting and US East Asia policy. Keywords: Taiwan, EEZ, UNCLOS

Thalang, Jeerawat Na and Vorapun Srivoranart. Kra Canal: centuries-old idea that refuses to die. Nation Multimedia Group.
-To dig or not to dig has long been a burning question surrounding the Kra Canal project. The debate surfaced again at a lively seminar focussing on the influence of the sea on the economy. The issue of whether or not the country should be cut in half by a canal appears to have as many supporters as opponents

Thao, Nguyen Hong. The 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea: A Note. Ocean Development & International Law, 34:279–285, 2003.
- Briefly describes the content and importance of the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea. Keywords: code of conduct, South China Sea disputes

Thao, Nguyen Hong. Maritime Delimitation and Fishery Cooperation in the Tonkin Gulf. Ocean Development & International Law, 36:25–44, 2005.
- The Tonkin Gulf fisheries cooperation and maritime boundaries agreements signed by Vietnam and China in 2004 “end years of negotiation and debate regarding the rights of the respective states to the ocean areas and resources in the Gulf.” Keywords: fisheries arrangement, Gulf of Tonkin, maritime boundary agreement.

Thapar, Vishal. Navy deploys warships in South China Sea. Hindustan Times, 18 October 2004.
-"To further project its blue water capability, the Indian Navy has deployed five of its front-line warships in the South China Sea."

Thayer, Carlyle A. Tensions Promote Discussions on a Code of Conduct. Comparative Connections, 1st Quarter 2000: China-ASEAN Relations.
- Quarterly review. Highlights: Chinese ships fishing and mining coral around Scarborough Shoal led to territorial disputes and diplomatic protests between Manila and Beijing. On March 15, senior officials from China and ASEAN met for the first time to discuss a draft Code of Conduct for the South China Sea.

Thia-Eng, Chua. "Coastal and Ocean Governance of the Seas of East Asia.", September 2002.
- Proposes a “sustainable development strategy for the seas of East Asia”. Keywords: World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)

To, Lee Lai. China, the USA and the South China Sea Conflicts. Security Dialogue vol. 34, no. 1, March 2003.
"This article focuses on China's strategy in dealing with the US factor in the South China Sea conflicts."

Tønnesson, Stein. Sino-Vietnamese Rapprochement and the South China Sea Irritant. Security Dialogue, Vol. 34, 55-70, 2003.
- This article describes the Sino-Vietnamese rapprochement in the 1990s, analyses the South China Sea ‘irritant’, presents the Gulf of Tonkin agreements and discusses the prospects for a Sino-Vietnamese initiative to resolve the South China Sea dispute. Keywords: Declaration on the Conduct of Parties, ASEAN, Paracels

Tønnesson, Stein. Two Scenarios of Conflict Management. University of Oslo.
-The author presents two scenarios for how the dispute in the South China Sea could be managed and perhaps eventually resolved. One scenario is idealistic, while the other is realistic.

Townsend-Gault, Ian. The Role of 'Track Two' Diplomacy in Ocean Affairs. South China Sea Informal Working Group at the University of British Columbia.
- Brief definition of Track Two Diplomacy (informal diplomacy) and its use.

Townsend-Gault, Ian. Legal and Political Perspectives on Sovereignty over the Spratly Islands. University of British Columbia, 1999
- Examines “some of the implications of the dispute concerning sovereignty over the Spratly Islands”. Keywords: Law of the Sea Convention, energy, international law.

Trono, Romeo B. and Jose Alfred B. Cantos. Conserving Migratory Species Through Ecoregion Conservation Approach: The Case of Sea Turtles in Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion, December 2002.
- “The tri-national sea turtle conservation program is envisioned to effectively conserve the largest green and hawksbill turtle populations and their habitats in the Southeast Asian region.” Keywords: WWF, ASEAN, Philippines, Malaysia


Understanding Security: Old and New Threats: Piracy and Maritime Terrorism.
- Article by the EuroCrime think tank about the rise in both the frequency and violence of piracy attacks around the world.

United Nations Environmental Program. Reversing Environmental Degradation Trends in the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand. September 2003.
- Official report of the First Meeting of the Regional Task Force on Legal Matters. Keywords: ASEAN, mangroves, swamp grass.

United States Energy Information Administration, World Oil Transit Chokepoints.
- Offers background information on seven strategic chokepoints for oil tankers. Keywords: Suez, Hormuz, Panama, Malacca, Bab-al-Mandab, Bosporus

United States Central Intelligence Agency, 1998 World Factbook:
Paracel Islands
Spratly Islands


Valencia, Mark J. China's push for offshore oil: A chance for joint deals. Singapore Press Holdings, September 2004.
- “As China’s energy demand and oil import bill soar and its other domestic sources run dry, it is increasingly casting its eye offshore - to disputed areas in the South and East China seas. This has raised tension. But it has also created the opportunity for joint development, which could build confidence and improve relations in the region.” Keywords: Spratly Islands, Diaoyu Islands, ASEAN

Valencia, Mark J. Conclusions and the way forward. Marine Policy Volume 29, Issue 2 , March 2005, Pages 185-187.
- “Military and intelligence gathering activities in the EEZs will likely become more intensive and intrusive. They will also become more controversial because there is disagreement regarding the regime governing such activities in the EEZ. Dialogue leading to agreed voluntary guidelines for these activities must continue.” Keywords: EEZ; Regimes; Conclusions; Next steps

Valencia, Mark J. Introduction: military and intelligence gathering activities in the exclusive economic zones: consensus and disagreement II. Marine Policy Volume 29, Issue 2 , March 2005, Pages 97-99.
- "Topics covered included a summary of the Tokyo Meeting; recent incidents and developments; different perspectives; the proliferation security initiative; implications for the EEZ regime; key terms: range of interpretation; hydrographic surveys and scientific research: differences, overlaps and implications; draft guidelines for military and intelligence gathering in the EEZ; means and manner of implementation and enforcement of any agreed rules; and conclusions and the way forward."

Valencia, Mark J. In Response to Robert Beckman. RSIS Commentaries;June 4, 2007.
- A response to what the author considers the overly optimistic views of Beckman's article, "Joint Development in the South China Sea, Time for ASEAN and China to Promote Cooperation?"

Valencia, Mark J. "Regional Maritime Marine Building: Prospects in Northeast and Southeast Asia" Ocean Development and International Law, 2000.
- “The primacy of dis-integrative factors argues strongly for an ad hoc, issue-specific, evolutionary process for multilateral maritime regime building in Asia.” Keywords: Asia, maritime regime building, Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia

Valencia, Mark J and Kazumine Akimoto. Report of the Tokyo meeting and progress to date. Marine Policy Volume 29, Issue 2 , March 2005, Pages 101-106.
Valencia, Mark J and Kazumine Akimoto. Report of the Tokyo meeting and progress to date. Marine Policy Volume 29, Issue 2 , March 2005, Pages 101-106.

Valencia, Mark J. and Yoshihisa Amae. Regime Building in the East China Sea. Ocean Development & International Law, Vol. 34, 2003, 189–208.
- “This article reviews the progress made in building this conflict avoidance regime and examines the need for and ways to expand it to cover military activities in the EEZ.” Keywords: East China Sea, regime building.

Van Dyke, Jon M. The disappearing right to navigational freedom in the exclusive economic zone. Marine Policy Volume 29, Issue 2 , March 2005, Pages 107-121.
- “The balance between navigation and other national interests continues to develop, and navigational freedoms appear to be disappearing during this evolutionary process.” Keywords: EEZ; Freedom of navigation; Disappearing right

Vietnamese Hold Rare Rally over Islands. The Associated Press; Dec 9, 2007.
"Several hundred Vietnamese staged a rare public demonstration Sunday to protest China's effort to claim control of two disputed island chains in the South China Sea." Students protested China's attempts to make a symbolic legal claim over the Paracel and Spratly Islands.


Walters, S. Contemporary Maritime Piracy. Crime and Justice International; Vol.23, Iss.96, 2007, pg.10-16.
- Lays out current criteria for the definition of piracy while looking at some of the concerns surrounding a rise in piracy attack.

Weeks, Stanley B., Sea Lines of Communication (SLOC) Security and Access, University of California, Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation; Feb, 1998.
- “Security and access to sea lines of communication (SLOCs) is of increasing importance, as these sea lines are the maritime highways for vast trade flows critical to the rapidly growing prosperity not only of the Northeast Asia region, but also for the entire Asia-Pacific.” Keywords: ASEAN, piracy, Spratly

Yann-Huei Song. Declarations and Statements with Respect to the 1982 UNCLOS: Potential Legal Disputes between the United States and China after US Accession to the Convention. Ocean Development & International Law, Vol. 36, 2005, 261–289.
- “This article discusses the implications of US accession to the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the future development of Sino- American relations in the areas of ocean law and politics.” Keywords: accession, China, Law of the Sea Convention, legal disputes, United States.

Young, Adam J. and Mark J. Valencia. Conflation of piracy and terrorism in Southeast Asia: Rectitude and utility. Contemporary Southeast Asia. Singapore: Aug 2003. Vol. 25, Iss. 2; pg.269.
- “…the objectives of pirates and terrorists are different, and solutions should be fitted to the particular problem.” Keywords: International Maritime Bureau, hijacking, pirate, terrorist

Young, Elizabeth. To Guard the Sea. Foreign Affairs; Vol.50, No.000001, Oct 1971, pg.136.
- Argues the need for clear-cut, universal laws to govern actions of different countries and individuals at sea.

Yow, Cheun Hoe. Resources for China-ASEAN Relations. China: An International Journal, March 2004, 171-185.
- Chronology of events in China-ASEAN relations between April and November 2003. Keywords: free trade, SARS, Thailand, Malaysia

Yu, Yunjun and Yongtong Mu. The new institutional arrangements for fisheries management in Beibu Gulf. Marine Policy, 2005.
- “A brief comparison is drawn among the three effectual fisheries agreements signed by China, respectively, with Japan, South Korea and Vietnam. Finally, as for the future of fisheries management in the Gulf some recommendations are made.” Keywords: Fisheries management; Institutional arrangements; Beibu Gulf (Tonkin Gulf)

Zubir, Mokhzani and Mohd Nizam Basiron. The Straits of Malacca: the Rise of China, America’s Intentions and the Dilemma of the Littoral States, April 2005.
- Malaysia and other littoral states must continually find ways to balance pressure from the US to increase security in the straits leading to the South China Sea and pressure from China to allow the unobstructed passage of its oil tankers. Keywords: UNLOSC, United States, Lombok, piracy, terrorism

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